INTERESTING CALCULATIONS

TOWER

• Calculate of the haulage of liquids for the vapor
• Calculate of the flooding of the trays

PIPES

• Calculate of the decibels taken place by the step of the fluid in the pipe

PUMPS

• Calculate of the minimum pressure before the cavitation

VALVES

• Calculate of the minimum pressure before the cavitation

FURNACES

• Calculate the consumption of the fuel
• Calculate of the reactions happened among of the tubes

BOILERS

• Calculate of the sure diameter of the pipe of the boiler
• Calculate of the lost of heat of the boiler
• Calculate of the reactions happened by the contamination

HEAT EXCHANGERS

• Calculate of the temperature of the tube
• Calculate of the flow with phase change.

Density - program online for pure compound

For liquids

to obtain the density of a liquid the following formula is used: Where             ρliq is the density of the pure liquid (gr/cm3)

A and B are constant that they depend on the compound.

Tr is the reduced temperature.

For the Gases

to obtain the density of a gas the following formula is used: Where             ρgas is the density of the gas (gr/cm3)

P is the total pressure (Atm)

M is the molecular weight (gr).

z is the factor of compressibility of the gas.

T is the temperature of the gas (°K)

R is the constant of the gas = 0.082

For the Mixture

to obtain the density average of the mixture the following formula is used Where            ρM is the density average of the mixture (gr/cm3)

ρ is the density of the component i (gr/cm3)

V is the volume that occupies according to its fraction molar (cm3)

Viscosity - program online for pure compound

;            For the liquids

to obtain the viscosity of a liquid the following formula is used: Where             μliq is the viscosity of the liquid (kg/m*s)

A, B, C and D are constant that it depends on the compound

T is the temperature (°K)

For the gases

to obtain the viscosity of a gas the following formula is used: Where             μgas is the viscosity of the gas (kg/m*s)

A, B and C are constant that it depends on the compound

T is the temperature (°K)

For the Mixture

to obtain the viscosity of the mixture the following formula is used Where             μmixture is the viscosity of the mixture (kg/m*s)

μi is the viscosity of each compound (kg/m*s)

xi is the fraction molar of the mixture

Caloric capacity

For the liquids

to obtain the caloric capacity of a liquid the following formula is used: Where             Cp-liq is the caloric capacity of a pure liquid (cal/mol-°K).

A, B and C are constant that they depend on the compound

T is the temperature to which is the liquid. (°K)

M is the molecular weight of the compound (gr).

For the gases

to obtain the caloric capacity of a gas the following formula is used: Where             Cp-gas is the caloric capacity of a gas (cal/mol-°K).

A, B, C and D are constant that they depend on the compound

T is the temperature. (°K)

For the mixture

to obtain the caloric capacity the mixture the following formula is used: o

Where             CpM is the caloric capacity of the mixture (cal/mol°K)

Cpi is the caloric capacity of the component i (cal/mol°K).

xi is the fraction molar of the component i

Thermal Conductivity

For the liquids

to obtain the thermal conductivity of a liquid the following formula is used: Where             kliq is the thermal conductivity of the pure liquid (w/m°K)

A, B, C is constant that they depend on the liquid

T is the temperature (°K)

For the gases

to obtain the thermal conductivity of a gas the following formula is used: Where             kgas is the thermal conductivity of the gas (w/m°K)

A, B, C is constant that it depends on the gas.

T is the temperature (°K)

For the mixture

to obtain the thermal conductivity of the mixture the following formula is used: Where             km is the thermal conductivity of the mixture (w/m°K)

ki is the thermal conductivity of the component i

xi is the fraction molar of the component i.

Latent heat of Vaporization

For a pure compound

to obtain the latent heat of vaporization the following formula is used: Where             ΔHvap is the latent heat of vaporization (kj/mol)

A, α, β is constant that it depends on the compound

Tr is the reduced temperature

Enthalpy

For the liquids

to obtain the genitalia of a liquid the following formula is used: ole13.gif

Where             ΔHliq is the enthalpy of the liquid (cal/mol)

Cp-liq is the caloric capacity of the liquid (cal/mol°K)

T is the temperature of the liquid (°K)

For the gases

to obtain the enthalpy of a gas the following formula is used: Where             ΔHgas is the enthalpy of the gas (cal/mol)

Cp-gas is the caloric capacity of the gas (cal/mol°K)

ΔHvap is the latent heat of vaporization (kj/mol)

Cp-liq is the caloric capacity of the liquid (cal/mol°K)

T is the temperature of the liquid (°K)

Teb is the temperature of boil to a given pressure.

Factor ki - program online for pure compound

to obtain the factor ki of each compound is used their properties you criticize and value asentric: Where              Pr is the reduced pressure

Tr is the reduced temperature

ω is the factor asentric

Factor Z - program online for pure compound Where             z is the factor of compressibility.

T is the temperature(°R)

P is the pressure (psi) (P <5000 psi)

Sg is the specifies gravity. (0.5 - 0.8)

F1 = P(0.251*Sg-0.15)-0.202*Sg+1.106

F2=1.4e-0.0054(T-460).

F3=A1*P5+A2*P4+A3*P3+A4*P2+A5*P

F4={0.154-0.152*Sg}*P(3.185*Sg-1)e-0.5*P-0.02

F5=0.35*{(0.6-Sg)E-1.039(P-1.8)2}

A1=0.001946

A2=-0.027635

A3=0.136315

A4=-0.23849

A5=0.105168

A6=3.44x108

Temperature of boil - program online for pure compound

to calculate the temperature of boil of a mixture the following equality should be completed: Where             ki is the balance coefficient to a pressure and given temperature.

xi is the fraction molar of the compound i.

.

Condensation temperature - program online for pure compound

to calculate the temperature of condensation of a mixture the following equality should be completed: Where             ki is the balance coefficient to a pressure and given temperature.

xi is the fraction molar of the compound i.

Chart for the conductivity thermal of the gas

 Formula Compound A B C TMIN TMAX N2 Nitrogen 0.00283 8.125E-05 -0.00000002 CO2 Dioxide Carbon -0.012 0.00010208 -0.000000022403 195 1500 H2S Sulfur hydrogen H2O Water 0.00193 4.52E-05 0.00000005 C1 Methane -0.00935 0.00014028 0.00000003318 97 1400 C2 Ethane -0.01936 0.00012547 0.00000003829 225 825 C3 Propane -0.00869 6.6409E-05 0.00000007876 233 773 i-C4 i-Butane -0.00115 1.4943E-05 0.00000014921 261 673 n-C4 n-Butane -0.00182 1.9396E-05 0.00000013818 225 675 i-C5 i-Pentane -0.00389 3.1816E-05 1.0396E-07 250 475 n-C5 n-Pentane 0.00137 1.8081E-05 1.2136E-07 225 480 C6 n-Hexane -0.002 7.779E-06 1.3824E-07 290 480 C7 n-Heptane -0.00172 1.6565E-05 1.0525E-07 250 750 C8 n-Octane -0.00213 1.8456E-05 9.4775E-08 300 800 C9 n-Nonane -0.00655 3.2637E-05 7.715E-08 449 678 C10 n-Decane -0.00113 8.109E-06 9.6092E-08 470 700 C11 n-Undecane 0.01364 -4.8303E-05 1.4396E-07 470 800 C12 n-Dozedecane -0.00812 2.915E-05 7.2085E-08 489 1000 C2H4O2 Acid acetic 0.00234 -6.5956E-06 1.1569E-07 295 687 C2H2 Acetylene -0.00358 6.2542E-05 7.0646E-08 200 600 C3H6O Acetone -0.00084 8.7475E-06 1.0678E-07 273 572 NH3 Ammoniac CO Monoxide Carbon 0.00158 8.2511E-05 -1.9081E-08 70 1250 CH2CH2 Ethylene -0.00123 3.6219E-05 1.2459E-07 150 750 O2 Oxygen 0.00181 8.575E-05 -2E-08 C4H8 i-Butylene -0.00327 3.0146E-05 1.2529E-07 250 850 C3H6 Propylene -0.01116 7.5155E-05 6.5558E-08 250 1000 CH3OH Methanol 0.00234 5.434E-06 1.3154E-07 273 684 C2H5OH Ethanol -0.00556 4.362E-05 8.5033E-08 351 991 C6H6 Benzene -0.00565 3.4493E-05 6.9298E-08 325 700 neo-C5 neo-Pentane 0.00071 -8.1028E-06 1.8759E-07 270 425

Chart for the conductivity thermal of the liquid

 Formula Compound A B C TMIN TMAX N2 Nitrogen CO2 Dioxide Carbon -1.3679 0.8092 304.19 217 289 H2S Sulfur hydrogen H2O Water -0.27070528 0.00456253 -0.00000546 C1 Methane -1.0976 0.5387 190.58 91 181 C2 Ethane -1.3474 0.7003 305.42 90 290 C3 Propane -1.2127 0.6611 369.82 85 351 i-C4 i-Butane -1.6862 0.9802 408.14 114 388 n-C4 n-Butane -1.8929 1.2885 425.18 135 404 i-C5 i-Pentane -1.6824 0.9955 460.43 113 437 n-C5 n-Pentane -1.2287 0.5322 469.65 143 446 C6 n-Hexane -1.8389 1.186 507.43 178 482 C7 n-Heptane -1.8482 1.1843 540.26 183 513 C8 n-Octane -1.8388 1.1699 568.83 216 540 C9 n-Nonane -1.7865 1.1033 595.65 220 566 C10 n-Decane -1.7768 1.0839 618.45 243 588 C11 n-Undecane -1.6318 0.9325 638.76 248 607 C12 n-Dozedecane -1.7989 1.1109 658.2 264 625 C2H4O2 Acid acetic -1.2836 0.5893 592.71 290 563 C2H2 Acetylene C3H6O Acetone -1.3857 0.7643 508.2 178 483 NH3 Ammoniac CO Monoxide Carbon -1.7115 1.1359 132.92 68 126 CH2CH2 Ethylene -1.3314 0.8527 282.26 104 268 O2 Oxygen C4H8 i-Butylene -1.49020 0.8491 417.90 133 397 C3H6 Propylene -1.43760 0.7718 364.76 88 347 CH3OH Methanol -1.1793 0.6191 512.58 175 487 C2H5OH Ethanol -1.3172 0.6987 516.25 159 490 C6H6 Benzene -1.6846 1.052 562.16 279 534 neo-C5 neo-Pentane -1.7534 1.0306 433.78 257 412

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