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 Post subject: Drones inspired by insects could keep flying even when damag
PostPosted: Thu Apr 15, 2021 1:49 am 
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Drones inspired by insects could detain flying even when damaged

Fruit flies detain flying even after losing a wing. Drone designers can use their secrets to detain flying robots airborne in aggressive conditions

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 Post subject: AI paediatrician makes diagnoses from records better than so
PostPosted: Wed Apr 21, 2021 2:09 am 
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AI paediatrician makes diagnoses from records better than some doctors

Artificial intelligence can diagnosis common and life-threatening diseases in children by reading their medical records but its not always right

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 Post subject: NASA Astrobiology --"Early Earth is a Model for Emergin
PostPosted: Fri Apr 23, 2021 4:52 am 
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NASA Astrobiology --"Early Earth is a Model for Emerging Life on Alien Planets"

 


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Early Earths regulatory carbon/seafloor weathering process would occur on any rocky planet with water. Theres nothing special about these processes, says Joshua Krissansen-Totton from the University of Washingtons astrobiology program and Virtual Planetary Laboratory. "We know pre-solar nebulae contained the ingredients for life; we also know countless exoplanets with those ingredients exist in habitable zones. The study widens the window of time on which life could have emerged on those planets."


 


The model doesnt resolve debates about exactly when or where life emerged, but it steers scientists in productive directions for further research. For example, if you believe life on Earth started at high temperatures, that could still be true, Krissansen-Totton told Astrobiology Magazine, but that would restrict origins to locally warm environs like hydrothermal vents.

 


The study also has implications for planetary evolution. Boston University Earth and Environment professor Andrew Kurtz, who was not part of the study, points out that Mars once had most of what Earth has going for it, or so we ponder: water on the surface, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and silicate rocks, which seem to support the possibility of life having once existed there. Scientists believe Mars atmosphere was vented into space via solar winds, but questions remain as to what upset the Red Planets cyclical recompense, as well as whether other planets could experience such drastic conditional changes.


 


An artists concept of the early Earth above. While still fairly inhospitable compared to todays standards, the early Earth may have had a more moderate climate and ocean temperature and pH than had been thought. Image credit: NASA.


The conditions on the early Earth have long been a mystery, but researchers from NASA and the University of Washington have now devised a way to account for the uncertain variables of the time, in turn discovering that the conditions of early Earth may have been more moderate than previously thought.


By applying these findings to other rocky planets, the researchers, whose results are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, conclude that the time-frame and likelihood of life persisting elsewhere is greater than first thought.


Given that we have no rocks or other material from Earths first 500 million years, approximations of conditions on our planet during that time have varied widely. Some picture early Earth as wrought by volcanic eruptions and bubbling with lava, while others envision a world asleep and encased in ice. Earths 4.5-billion-year history leaves room for many geological phases and people have used all kinds of different geochemical datasets to get some measure of surface conditions, says the studys direct author Krissansen-Totton.


The researchers focused on the Archean Eon, 4 billion to 2.5 billion years ago, shortly after the formation of Earths crust, atmosphere, and oceans. Its also when life likely emerged.


The difficult part is in deducing ocean pH and global temperature, about which estimates fluctuate drastically, from alkaline to corrosively acidic and from 25 to 85 degrees Celsius (13 to 185 degrees Fahrenheit).


Earths carbon cycle holds the key to constraining these variables. Volcanos push carbon into the atmosphere by outgassing carbon dioxide, then carbonic acid rains down to the surface, dissolving rocks and releasing the ions inside, which eventually reach the oceans via rivers and form calcium carbonate. The net result of this process is that carbon in the air is locked up in rocks. Similarly, seawater circulating through the ocean crust dissolves the surrounding rock, releasing ions that them form new carbonate rocks, which also locks up atmospheric carbon in the crust. Some of this carbon is subducted back into the planets mantle and starts the cycle anew as its outgassed again by volcanoes.


These weathering processes are temperature dependent; Krissansen-Totton likens it to a casual thermostat.


A schematic of the carbon cycle on the early Earth, in which carbon enters the ocean from the atmosphere and eventually becomes part of carbon-bearing rocks on the sea floor that undergo weathering, dissolving the carbon. Image credit: Creative Commons BY-NC-ND.


If carbon dioxide emissions increase, the temperature increases; if the temperature increases, seafloor weathering increases. Because it took billions of years to create Earths continents, less land existed on the early Earth, so seafloor weathering had a particularly distinctive regulatory impact on Earths temperature and vice versa.


Researchers applied their understanding of the carbon cycle based on data from the last 100 years and, instead of choosing any single theory regarding ocean composition and climate, they picked the broadest anger for the unknown and then calculated the anger of possibilities for climate and ocean pH, said Krissansen-Totton.


The researchers came up with new ways to describe how carbon in sediment and rock pore water is consumed by chemical reactions [in seafloor weathering], explains Andrew Kurtz, who was not part of the study.


The researchers tested their model against the last 100 million years of Earth history, about which we know far more details, for a paper they published last year. This new study is the first to deploy a realistic and self-consistent representation of the process and to apply that to the early Earth.


The simulations arent exact and dont resolve all uncertainties, but according to Krissansen-Totton, they provide robust information about early Earth. Kurtz affirms that the results produce a seemingly reasonably climate and pH history that is physically sensible and mathematically internally consistent.


A comparison between the Archean Earth (left) and present day Earth. The Archean oceans appear green as a result of a high amount of iron ions present. The orange shapes represent magnesium-plentiful proto-continents, before the era of plate tectonics. Image credit: Ming Tang/University of Maryland.


The first half-billion years of the Earths life is a period called the Hadean Eon, so-named because of its hellish heat. However, the studys results challenge the notion that Earth remained scorching hot well into the Archean Eon. After the heat from Earths formation dissipated, the researchers models suggest that the climate and ocean pH were surprisingly moderate: between 0 and 50 degrees Celsius (32122 degrees Fahrenheit) with a pH of between 6.2 and 7.7 (7 is neutral). Kurtz notes that this result is consistent with an influential 2002 paper arguing the likelihood of a cool early Earth.


The labor was supported by NASA Astrobiology through the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology Program and the Virtual Planetary Laboratory, as well as through the Earth and Space Science Fellowship program.


The Daily Galaxy via Astrobiology


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 Post subject: China to Build a Smart Ocean --"The Next Great Maritime
PostPosted: Sun Apr 25, 2021 4:35 pm 
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China to Build a Smart Ocean --"The Next Great Maritime Power"

 


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China, on its way of implementing the strategy of building a maritime power, is endeavoring to promoting the development of maritime big data and building of "Smart Ocean," using satellite sensing, intelligent buoy, underwater glider, underwater robot, and deep-sea space station.


The 2016 China Qingdao International Ocean Summit Forum was held in Qingdao on September 26th. Experts participating expressed that big data is the emerging strategic resource, maritime big data is the scientific application of big data technology in maritime field and maritime science has entered a new era driven by both data and knowledge.


Wu Lixin, academician of Chinese Academy of Science, pointed out that maritime big data involves various fields including physical oceanography, marine geology, marine biology, marine ecology, marine chemistry, marine remote sensing and deep-sea observation, and physical oceanography alone has waves, humidity, salinity and other 200 data variables.


The image below shows workers transporting Chinas manned submersible Jiaolong to its mother ship the "Xiangyanghong 09" scientific exploration ship in Jiangyin, east Chinas Jiangsu Province, May 31, 2012. The Jiaolong would challenge a 7,000-meter dive to the Mariana Trench on June 3. (Xinhua/Chen Jian)


 


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According to sources, Tsinghua University is building a remote sensing big data center to support the development of maritime big data including ocean storm surge and inland flood monitoring and early-warning system, marine remote sensing big data mining and analysis and innovative application of navigation satellite in maritime fields.


Wang Lei, from Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, introduced that his institute, cooperating with Qingdao Bangbang Information Co., Ltd., has developed CAS Scientific and Technical Service Network Project which has been operating in fish and crab farming for about 3 years with over 400,000 users. Experts said this project has built a smart aquaculture and big data platform which can collect and analyze all major influential factors in farming in a comprehensive way and achieve process monitoring, environmental early-warning, data processing and technical guidance.


Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology is also dedicated to maritime big data development and building petaflop supercomputers which will be fastest supercomputer in maritime field for China.


Wu Lixin, Director of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, proposed the "Transparent Ocean" project, which uses the satellite sensing, intelligent buoy, underwater glider, underwater robot, deep-sea space station and other equipment to acquire in real-time or accustomed time the general information of marine environment at different depth in certain areas and support channel safety, marine ecological environment and resources safety, maritime disaster prevention and relief and weather forecasting.


The oceanic space station would be located as much as 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) below the surface, according to a recent Science Ministry presentation viewed by Bloomberg. The project was mentioned in Chinas current five-year economic allot released in March and ranked number two on a list of the top 100 science and technology priorities.


The Daily Galaxy via  China Economic Information Service












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 Post subject: WATCH Todays Galaxy Stream --Solving the Mystery of the Atac
PostPosted: Tue Apr 27, 2021 6:12 am 
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WATCH Todays Galaxy Stream --Solving the Mystery of the Atacama "Alien" Humanoid

 


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The solving of the mystery began in 2012 when Garry P. Nolan, an immunologist at Stanford University and direct researcher on the project, heard of the U.F.O. documentary, Sirius, which featured the tiny form as possible evidence of aliens. At the time, the film was still in production, so Nolan reached out to producers and offered to examine the mummys DNA, Carl Zimmer, wrote for The New York Times.


The skeleton looks strangely human, but is just six inches long. Found in 2003 in the Atacama Leave of northern Chile, it has hardened teeth, 10 ribs instead of 12, big eye sockets and an elongated, pointy skull. Since its discovery, the tiny form has sparked curiosity and speculationand more than a few stories of aliens.

 


Carl Zimmer for The New York Times reported that a team of Stanford University scientists finally know how this tiny mummy came to be. A new study published in Genome Research presents DNA analysis of bone marrow cells from the skeleton. The results suggest that the remains belonged to a child who likely had genetic mutations resulting in a bone disorder that caused the unexpected form.


 



 


This was an unusual specimen with some fairly extraordinary claims put forward. ... it would be an example of how to use modern science to answer the question what is it? Nolan says in a press release. The skeletons owner it ended up in a private collection after it was found sent Nolan X-ray images and bone marrow samples collected from the ribs and right humerus.


In a study published today in Genome Research, whole genome sequencing of the Atacama (Ata) skeleton offers insights into its ancestry and strange phenotype.


Early analyses revealed that the Ata skeleton contained high-quality DNA that was suitable for modern sequencing technology. "This was an unusual specimen with some fairly extraordinary claims put forward. ... it would be an example of how to use modern science to answer the question "what is it?" says senior author Garry Nolan from Stanford University. Using DNA extracted from the bone marrow, Nolan and his colleagues conducted a whole-genome sequence analysis of Ata.


Sequencing reads were aligned to human and non-human primate reference genomes, including chimpanzee and rhesus macaque, which revealed Ata to be of human origin. Atas Chilean ancestry was resolved by comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) against a database of known SNPs from diverse geographical populations. The ratio of sequence read alignment to the X and Y Chromosomes revealed that Ata was female.


The researchers next probed for genetic clues that could explain Atas small stature, multiple bone and skull abnormalities, idiosyncratic rib count, and premature bone age. They found multiple mutations in genes associated with diseases such as dwarfism, scoliosis, and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, Nolan claims Atas "dramatic phenotype could in fact be explained with a relatively brief list of mutations in genes known previously to be associated with bone development."


"This is a great example of how studying ancient samples can teach us how to analyze modern day medical samples" says co-author Atul Butte, UCSF. Future studies employing deeper sequencing and analyses of the novel sequence variations found in Ata may improve our understanding of the functional basis of genetic skeletal disorders.


The Daily Galaxy via Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Smithsonian Magazine


Image credit: Bhattacharya S., et al. / Via genome.cshlp.org


 


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 Post subject: Life in the Cosmos --"In Its Advanced Forms May Be Inco
PostPosted: Wed Apr 28, 2021 8:42 pm 
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Life in the Cosmos --"In Its Advanced Forms May Be Incomprehensible to the Human Mind"

 


 


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"If life really does form readily in Earth-like conditions, it should have started many times right here on Earth, so we should look for a shadow biosphere of life, but not as we know it, under our very noses."


Although there is plenty of habitable real estate out there, "habitable" is not the same as "inhabited," says Arizona State University Regents Professor and noted cosmologist Paul Davies. Because nobody knows how non-life transitioned to life on Earth, it is impossible to predict the odds of it springing forth elsewhere in the universe.

 


In its most advanced forms, Davies has aruged, life may exists in forms beyond matter as we know it. That it might have no fixed size or shape; have no well-defined boundaries. Is dynamical on all scales of space and time. Or, conversely, does not appear to do anything at all that we can discern. Does not consist of discrete, separate things; but rather it is a system, or a subtle higher-level correlation of things.


Are matter and information, Davies asks, all there is? Five hundred years ago, Davies writes, " the very concept of a device manipulating information, or software, would have been incomprehensible. Might there be a still higher level, as yet outside all human experience, that organizes electrons?


If so, this "third level" would never be manifest through observations made at the informational level, still less at the matter level.


We should be open to the distinct possibility that advanced alien technology a billion years old may operate at the third, or perhaps even a fourth or fifth level -all of which are totally incomprehensible to the human mind at our current state of evolution in 2018.


Davies presented his findings during a press briefing Feb. 16 at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Austin, Texas.


"During my career, opinion has shifted from lifes origin being a bizarre fluke unique in the universe (almost a miracle in the words of Francis Crick), to the belief that the universe is teeming with life (a cosmic imperative in the words of Christian de Duve)," Davies said. "How can we adjust the matter? For several decades astronomers have been sweeping the skies with radio telescopes hoping to stumble across a message from ET. So far they have been met by an eerie silence."


Davies is a cosmologist, theoretical physicist, astrobiologist and best-selling author. His latest book The Eerie Silence" is a celebration and critique of the search for cosmic company.


Davies is a member of the Breakthrough Listen Committee and formerly chaired the SETI Post-Detection Task group of the International Academy of Astronautics. He was the first person to champion the idea that life on Earth may have originated on Mars and transferred here in impact ejecta. Davies is director of the Beyond Center at ASU that researches how life began in terms of the organization of information in complex networks - the software of life. His forthcoming book "The Demon in the Machine," is a penetrating look at the power of information to explain the physics of living matter.


The Daily Galaxy via Arizona State University


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 Post subject: Microsoft and Nvidia build largest ever AI to mimic human la
PostPosted: Mon Oct 18, 2021 11:39 pm 
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Microsoft and Nvidia build largest ever AI to mimic human language

An artificial intelligence with more than 530 billion parameters - the largest ever - has achieved record scores at understanding human language

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 Post subject: Watch a robot cat chase a robot mouse
PostPosted: Thu Jun 16, 2022 3:51 am 
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A robotic game of cat and mouse shows how neuromorphic chips inspired by the brain could allow small robots to make decisions without using too much power

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